Microsoft Windows

From PCGamingWiki, the wiki about fixing PC games
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows cover
Developers
Microsoft
Release dates
Windows November 20, 1985
Microsoft Windows at Wikipedia

Key points

The most popular and widely supported family of operating system among PC gamers.
Backward compatibility is high, with newer versions of the operating system capable of running decades old software with minimal issues.
Have transitioned over to periodical major upgrades biannually since the introduction of Windows 10.

Resources

Official support
Windows 10 Update history
Microsoft Update Catalog - Allows for manual download of updates or device drivers. See related KB article.

Communities

Microsoft Community - Official community for everything related to Microsoft
/r/windows10 - Subreddit dedicated to Windows 10
/r/windows - Subreddit dedicated to Windows in general

General[edit]

Command Prompt[edit]

The Command Prompt is the command-line interpreter provided by Microsoft for Windows systems and is the not-as-powerful equivalent of the shell in Linux and Mac OS. It can be accessed by going to 'run' and typing 'cmd.exe' or by running a 'Batch file'.

Admin Command Prompt[edit]

Windows 8 and later
  • Push Win+X, then push A.

Task Manager[edit]

The Task Manager is an application built into Windows that allows for the managing running processes as well as providing information about computer performance.

It can be accessed by any of the following ways:

  • Right-click on the taskbar of Windows and select Task Manager.
  • Press Ctrl+Alt+Delete and select Task Manager.
  • Press Ctrl+ Shift+Esc to open it directly.

Device Manager[edit]

The Device Manager is an application built into Windows that allows for the management of device drivers. It can be accessed from the Control Panel.

Registry Editor[edit]

The Registry Editor allows users to edit the Windows registry. It can be accessed by going to 'run' and typing 'Regedit.exe'.

Basic Editing
  1. Push Win+R, type regedit, then click OK.
  2. Navigate to the desired registry key, such as HKEY_CURRENT_USER, under the Computer category.
  3. Double click on any entries on the right side, right after selecting a registry key, under the Name category, in order to edit them.
Advanced Search
  1. Download RegJump, extract it inside the root directory of the main Local Disk location.
  2. Copy any desired path into the clipboard.
  3. Open a Command prompt as an admin.
  4. Write CD YourRootFolder:\, regjump.exe and regjump -c.

Notes

The last command tells Windows to open the Registry Editor at the path which was currently stored inside the clipboard.

Blue Screen of Death (BSOD)[edit]

A Blue Screen of Death (a.k.a BSOD or Bluescreen) is an error screen that Windows produces when it encounters an error that it cannot recover from.

DirectX[edit]

DirectX is a collection of APIs for Windows that allows programs to interact directly with hardware.

.NET Framework[edit]

The .NET Framework is a software framework for Windows that is required for games built in .NET-aware languages (such as C# or Visual Basic), including those that use XNA. Different games may require different versions of .NET Framework. A list with download links to all versions may be found on MSDN. Windows 8 and 10 users may want to read this.

DLLs[edit]

DLL stands for "Dynamic Link Library". DLL files (.dll) are Windows exclusive library files containing code and data that can be used over several applications.

While they can save time for developers, these files can cause problems for the end-user (commonly referred to as "DLL Hell").

Windows 10[edit]

Fullscreen optimizations[edit]

Available for DirectX 9 and above; automatically engaged.
Optimizations combining the benefits of classic exclusive fullscreen mode with that of borderless window mode, by utilizing flip model presentation in a maximized borderless window.
Have been known to cause frame pacing issues with some games.
Despite information stated elsewhere online, there is currently no built-in way of system-wide disabling fullscreen optimizations for all executables in Windows 10 v1803 "April Update". Previously, settings existed tied to this in Settings > Gaming > Game bar settings page, but this is no longer the case pending a move to the Display settings > Graphics settings subpage.

Windows 10 (v1703 "Creators Update" and later) includes optimizations to the classic exclusive fullscreen mode that attempts to convert games running in the "classic" exclusive fullscreen mode into using borderless window mode with flip model presentation instead. This optimization is completely transparent to the game, and the game and injected tools (such as Special K) will believe and report that the game is running in exclusive fullscreen mode. This allows the use of Windows 10's Game bar as well as other system overlays in games that otherwise would not support them. A side-effect of the flip model presentation used is that it still allows the use of virtual refresh rate techniques such as G-Sync/FreeSync syncing the monitor to the frame rate despite them being configured for fullscreen only.

Disable fullscreen optimizations for an executable
  1. Navigate to <path-to-game> and locate the executable of the game.
  2. Right-click on the executable and select Properties.
  3. Open the Compatibility tab.
  4. Check Disable fullscreen optimizations and click OK.

Notes

On Windows 10 v1803 "April Update", some users might experience an issue while using an injector based on dxgi.dll where fullscreen optimizations are forcefully enabled despite being "disabled" because of the presence of that DLL file. Using another supported DLL filename for the injector works around the issue.[1]
Check if fullscreen optimizations are being used or not
  1. Enable the Game bar of Windows 10 and verify that it can be toggled using Win+G.
  2. Launch the particular game and configure it to run in exclusive fullscreen mode, then restart the game.
  3. Allow the main menu of the game to appear, then click on Win+G and inspect the results:
    • If the screen flashes brightly twice the game is running in "classic" exclusive fullscreen mode, and fullscreen optimizations are disabled.
    • If the Game bar appears fullscreen optimziations are enabled or the "fullscreen mode" of the game is actually just a misnamed borderless window mode (typically seen with Unity-based games).

Notes

To verify whether the fullscreen mode of the game is "classic" exclusive fullscreen mode, or simply a borderless maximized window referred to as "fullscreen mode", a third-party tool such as Special K might be needed.
An alternative method to check if the Game bar is disabled is to use the volume media keys that some keyboards have. If the volume overlay appears, fullscreen optimizations are enabled. If it does not, fullscreen optimizations are disabled.

Game bar[edit]

The Game bar ( Win+G) allows easy capture recording of gameplay screenshots and video while playing a game and is enabled by default in Windows 10. Unfortunately, some games suffer from sporadic but severe FPS drops when the bar is enabled.[2]

Toggle Game bar
  1. Open Settings, click on Gaming, and navigate to the Game bar page.
  2. Toggle Record game clips, screenshots, and broadcast using Game bar.
Toggle Game DVR background recording
  1. Open Settings, click on Gaming, and navigate to the Game DVR page.
  2. Toggle Record in the background while I'm playing a game.

Game Mode[edit]

Game Mode allows the system to prioritize CPU and GPU resources to the game running in the foreground, and aims to provide an increase of overall frame rate, or peaks, as well as an increase of average frame rate, or consistency.[3]
Benchmarks indicate the mode have a more profound (but still minimal) effect on computers running limited hardware.[4]
Microsoft's official support article: Use Game Mode while gaming on your PC
Toggle Game Mode for a game
  1. Launch the game.
  2. Open the Game Bar using Win+G.
  3. Use the Turn Game Mode on/off option (a speedometer icon) to toggle Game Mode.

Notes

The Game bar is not available for games running in exclusive fullscreen mode. For those games, temporarily change the display mode to windowed or borderless windowed mode and enable Game Mode, then change back to exclusive fullscreen mode.

Disable driver updates delivered through Windows Update[edit]

Driver updates can only be disabled before they are actually downloaded/installed.
Not all driver updates will be listed at first, however they can be disabled gradually.

Disable memory compression[edit]

Change settings in Powershell

Search for the name Powershell in the system, and launch it as administrator via RBM. Write: Get-MMAgent to check the current state of memory compression. If it's false, there is nothing to be done. It can be disabled by default while using SSD as system disk. To disable it, write: Disable-MMAgent -mc To enable, write Enable-MMAgent -mc

Disabling memory compression can increase application stability while using demanding games for CPU[5]. Although some games benefit from the memory compression enabled.

Turn on ReadyBoost[edit]

Configure your pendrive in Computer to use with ReadyBoost

Plug in pendrive, and RBM on it in Computer, go to ReadyBoost, then click "Dedicate this device to ReadyBoost". Since now, game may stutter less on 4GB RAM configurations (mostly during intensive using HDD and page file during the game). Before playing, make sure that process System, SysMain, svhost.exe (LocalServiceNetworkRestricted -p [can be closed in Resource Monitor], Windows Update, or others, stopped using disk (they can cause additional stuttering).

Pagefile on SSD (especially on other partition than game) outperforms ReadyBoost, hence the service will be unavailable on systems with SSD.

Backward compatibility[edit]

Compatibility mode[edit]

See Windows Compatibility Mode for information on how to use the built-in backward compatibility mode of Windows.

DOS compatibility[edit]

For modern versions of Windows (both 32-bit and 64-bit), it is recommended to use DOSBox.

If you're having trouble getting DOS games to run on older versions of NT (XP & 2000) checkout The Sierra Help Pages.
In the transition from Windows 9x to NT based versions, DOS compatibility was temporarily maintained, at least for 32-bit editions.

Issues unresolved[edit]

Screen recorders, overlays, injectors won't work with Windows Apps[edit]

See Windows Store article for this and other Windows Apps related issues.

Issues fixed[edit]

Alt F4 doesn't terminate frozen applications[edit]

Older Games Missing .dll File on Windows Vista and later[edit]

Some .dll files have different names on Windows Vista and later.
Copy DLL to folder
  1. Make a note of the name of the missing .dll.
  2. Go to %WINDIR%\SysWOW64 (or %WINDIR%\System32 if you are running a 32-bit version of Windows).
  3. Find the .dll that has the same name as the missing .dll but with an additional x in the name (e.g. if the game can't find dplay.dll, look for dplayx.dll).
  4. Copy that .dll into the game's installation folder (do not move it).
  5. Rename the copy to the name of the .dll that was missing (so dplayx.dll becomes dplay.dll, etc.)
  6. The game should now see the .dll and play normally.

DirectDraw is broken[edit]

This issue actually first materialized in 8.1,[6] unfortunately there is little more that can be done than use a DDraw wrapper:

DgVoodoo 2, a glide wrapper, also has a DDraw wrapper built-in.
Direct3D 8 has a very similar issue on 8.1 and later as well[7], however the ddraw wrappers (with an exception to the ones that include a d3d8.dll) do not fix the issue as D3D8 doesn't use ddraw, being the first version of DirectX to deprecate it. Instead use a patched d3d8.dll, the DX8 to DX9 convertor or the d3d8to9 wrapper.
Users of Windows Vista and on-wards actually benefit from a DDraw wrapper due to it no longer being hardware accelerated on such systems, however the built-in DDraw wasn't completely broken until 8.1.

Older games refuse to start on Windows 8 and later[edit]

Install DirectPlay
  1. Open the Start screen, type OptionalFeatures.exe and press Enter.
  2. Expand Legacy Components.
  3. Ensure DirectPlay is checked.
  4. Click OK to save your changes.

Note: Normally Windows 8+ automatically detects if an application needs DirectPlay or other legacy components when it launches and prompts the user to install DirectPlay, but this requires a certain combination of services to be active such as the Diagnostic Policy Service which are sometimes disabled by the user.

Force CPU affinity[edit]

Prevents processes from using other CPU cores than the ones allowed, which can work around threading synchronization issues that might exist.
Provisional solution: Task manager
  1. Open Windows Task Manager.
  2. Find process for the application by Right-click on its task and press Go to process/details.
  3. Right-click on the process and select Set affinity.
  4. Deselect all other CPU cores than the ones the process should be allowed to run on. If you want to prevent the process from using Intel's Hyper-Threading (HT) or AMD's Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) CPU cores then deselect all odd CPU cores (so 1, 3, 5, 7, etc).
  5. Click OK to apply the change. It will take effect immediately.

Notes

Task Manager does not store the tweak permanently. It needs to be reapplied each time the process launches.
Permanent solution: customized shortcut
  1. Right click on your desktop
  2. Make a new shortcut to %WINDIR%\System32\cmd.exe
  3. Open its properties and add the following to the "Target" field
/C start "" /D "<path-to-game>\" /AFFINITY 1 "<path-to-game>\game.exe"

Notes

Shortcut name and icon can be customized to match game's ones.
Additional parameters can be normally added at the end of the target field
Affinity value must be in hex. To assign more than a core check this table
For e.g. 1+2+3 (so without Core 0) cores/threads setting on application launch, the .bat is following:

Start /affinity E app.exe "E" is a hex value. To set it manually, just add corresponding "Associated value(s) (n)" from here and convert it to hex value (third option here)

Permanent solution: flag game executable
  1. Download ImageCFG
  2. Place it in the same folder of the game exe
  3. Open there a command prompt and run
imagecfg -a 0x1 game.exe

Notes

Executable won't be backed up, so if you'll have to do so yourself if you wish to revert it.
Affinity value is in hex. If you want to assign more than a core, check here
Use PsExec
  1. Download Sysinternals's PsTools
  2. Extract PsExec in the game executable folder
  3. Run the game through the following command (command line and/or a batch file can be used)
psexec -a 0 game.exe

Notes

Additional cores can be specified with a comma after the previous ones
Use RunFirst
  1. Download RunFirst
  2. Create a shortcut to RunFirst.exe with the path to game executable as a parameter

Notes

This won't work if game requires to be launched through an external client

4-Gigabyte Tuning[edit]

Windows XP and Server 2003 (x86 only): edit boot configuration file[8]
  1. Open command prompt under administrator privileges
  2. Type bootcfg /raw "/3GB /userva=2048" /A /ID 1 (where 1 is the boot entry id)
Windows Vista and later (x86 only): edit boot configuration database[11]
  1. Open an elevated command prompt
  2. Type BCDEdit /set increaseuserva 2048

Notes

Windows default setting of 2048MB of user-mode virtual address space is used in the examples. Higher values may be attempted at risk of various system instabilities[9][10]
Force IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE flag in executables
  1. Download Large Address Aware enabler
  2. Open it and select game executable
  3. Tick LAA checkbox and save changes

Notes

Should there be any issue, revert modification and try 4GB Patch

Shoddy coded applications mess system-wide registry setting[edit]

Edit key ACL
  1. Open regedit
  2. Navigate to the relevant key
  3. Right-click over it, then Permissions and Advanced
  4. Depending on your Windows version either untick Permissions inheritance from parent or press Disable Inheritance
  5. When asked, choose to add/convert/copy previous permissions to the object
  6. Click on Administrators group and edit its permissions
  7. Select changes to apply This key only
  8. Last untick Set Value advanced permission

Notes

In the event of 32-bit offending program not expected to run with administrator privileges on Vista or newer Windows reg flags "<key>" set DONT_VIRTUALIZE /reg:32 can be used instead[12]

Codec hell[edit]

Reset DirectShow filters
  1. Download and open DirectShow Filter Manager
  2. Go to the Troubleshooting tab
  3. Select Restore standard DirectX codecs

Notes

Single filters can be adjusted with Codec Tweak Tool

Missing codecs[edit]

Install ffdshow[13]
Choose the release with the number of bits your troublesome application is compiled for, regardless of the actual OS instruction set
QuickTime for Windows is no more[citation needed]
Install QT Lite for apps that use Apple's codecs.

Game files missing after upgrading or refreshing Windows[edit]

Upgrading or refreshing your Windows installation will move some files and folders to a Windows.old folder on the system drive.
Retrieve files from windows.old[14]
  1. Open the Start screen/Start menu, type Computer and press Enter.
  2. Go into the system drive (usually C:).
  3. Go into the Windows.old folder.
  4. Go to the equivalent location for the files you are looking for and move them to their normal location.

Non-Unicode applications might not work properly[edit]

This is most commonly an issue with Japanese games and visual novels, and may prevent a game from being installed, launched, or even work properly (may have scrambled text or bugs).
Locale Emulator/Microsoft AppLocale runs the application with the correct localization without affecting the rest of the operating system.
Use Locale Emulator
Developed primarily for Windows 10, although it is also compatible with both 7 and 8.1.
Supports only 32-bit executables.

Instructions

  1. Download Locale Emulator and extract the archive to where you want the application to be installed.
  2. Run LEInstaller.exe and select Install for current user.
  3. After the installation have finished, use LEGUI.exe to set up desired localization profiles.
  4. Finally, right-click on a 32-bit executable (or its shortcut) and select the desired profile under the Locale Emulator context menu.
Use Microsoft AppLocale
Might not work on modern versions of Windows as the tool have not been updated since 2004.

Instructions

  1. Download Microsoft AppLocale here and install it.
    • With Windows versions after XP installation will fail. Simply put installer to XP SP3 compatibility mode to continue.
  2. Open AppLocale follow instructions. It should automatically detect programs language.
Change non-Unicode language system-wide[15]
Easiest way to fix the issue, but may introduce unwanted changes to other programs; especially if the display language of Windows is non-English. This includes some basic characters being incorrectly replaced, programs defaulting to set non-Unicode language and other programs suddenly not being able to launch or crash.

Instructions

  1. Go to Control Panel, Clock, Language and Region and Regional and Language Options.
  2. From Administrative tab change non-unicode language to the country/localization the game originated from.
  3. Restart computer for changes to take effect.

IPX protocol deprecated[edit]

IPX was a LAN protocol commonly used with older programs, especially games. Unfortunately it was removed entirely from Vista and later with no indication of returning.
Try a wrapper[citation needed]

Try one of the following:

  • ipxemu
  • IPXWrapper
  • Kali - This one's more for tunneling IPX over the internet rather than LAN, but still works.
Copy support files from Windows XP[16]

What you need: a working installation of Windows XP sp2.

Step 1. Ctrate a new folder c:\temp

Step 2. Copy the following files to the directory c:\temp *and* to the corrsponding vista directories: Note: You might need to open up an "elevated" command prompt, "run as administrator", (to get write access to directories).

Windows\System32\drivers\nwlnkipx.sys Windows\System32\drivers\nwlnkflt.sys Windows\System32\drivers\nwlnkfwd.sys Windows\System32\drivers\nwlnknb.sys Windows\System32\drivers\nwlnkspx.sys

Windows\System32\rtipxmib.dll Windows\System32\wshisn.dll Windows\System32\nwprovau.dll

Windows\inf\netnwlnk.inf (*) Windows\inf\netnwlnk.pnf (*)

(*) The directory "inf" is hidden

Step 3. Go to "manage network connection" (in control panel-> network). Right click your LAN adapter connection, click "install", "protocol", "Add", Do not select the IPX that is already in the list, be sure to select "have disk". Navigate to "c:\temp" and select file "netnwlnk.inf", now select "WLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS". You will get a warning it's not verifyable, install anyway (or not..).

If you get an error message about a missing module, you forgot to copy the above files to the windows 7 directories.

Step 4. Reboot computer.

Only works on 32-bit version of Vista and later.
Some parts of protocol don't even work (properties button greyed out in setting, ect.)
Support files can also be downloaded here in case you don't own XP.

Lowered volume when using background Metro/UWP apps[edit]

Instructions[citation needed]
  1. Push Win+R, type mmsys.cpl, then select OK.
  2. Open the Communications tab, then select Do nothing and save.

Microsoft removed the MIDI Mapper[edit]

Over the last versions of Windows, Microsoft have slowly but steadily depreciated the original Microsoft MIDI Mapper of Windows.

SafeDisc protected games do not work with Windows 10[edit]

This exposes the system to known security vulnerabilities, and can make the system more susceptible to malicious attacks.

Previous versions of Windows included a compatible version of secdrv.sys for Macrovision SafeDisc DRM; Windows 10 does not, rendering games protected by SafeDisc unplayable. According to a Microsoft representative "Safedisc is not supported on Windows 10" and people will have to wait for Trymedia to come out with an updated kernel driver, something which is impossible as official SafeDisc support was dropped on March 30, 2009.[18][19] However a workaround is to obtain and install the kernel driver from an older version of Windows, as described below.

Install SafeDisc drivers from a previous version of Windows[20]
  1. Download the necessary files.
  2. Extract to any path except directly to %WINDIR%\system32\drivers.
  3. Copy secdrv.sys to %WINDIR%\system32\drivers.
  4. Import secdrv.reg to Windows registry.

Microstuttering in Multiplayer games[edit]

The Multimedia Class Scheduler Service has built-in network throttling which can greatly degrade performance of online games.
Edit the registry[21][22]
  1. Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Multimedia\SystemProfile
  2. There will be an entry for network performance throttling, default value is 10 or a; set it to FFFFFFFF (will look like 0xFFFFFFFF to the right of the entry). Windows Vista and 7 users can stop here.
  3. There will be an entry for system responsiveness, default value is 20; Set it to 00000000 for pure gaming/streaming.
  4. Go down the registry tree further to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Multimedia\SystemProfile\Tasks\Games
  5. There will be an entry for priority and GPU priority; set GPU to 8 and priority to 6.
  6. Reboot

WiFi background scan causes latency[edit]

WiFi adapters periodically perform background scans to discover additional networks. Unfortunately this induces latency, see here for more info.
Universal solution[23]

Use WLAN Optimizer.

Atheros adapters[24]
  1. go to the Control Panel
  2. choose Networks and Sharing -> Change Adapter Settings (in the left column)
  3. choose your Wi-Fi adapter -> right click -> Properties
  4. click Configure (under "Connect Using")
  5. go to the Advanced tab -> search for the following options
  6. Background Scan - set to Disabled
  7. Foreground Scan - set to Disabled
intel adapters[24]
  1. type ncpa.cpl into the Windows search box (or type it in the start menu).
  2. this pops up the Network Connections control panel, and a laptop/desktop user will probably see Ethernet and Wi-Fi adapters in there.
  3. right-click on the Wi-Fi adapter icon and select Properties
  4. click the Configure button on the driver property page
  5. on the Advanced tab, scroll down the Property list and set Roaming Aggressiveness to 1. Lowest
  6. click OK to all the settings pages you've just opened

Core parking causes problems with games[edit]

Quick registry hack[25][26]
  1. Open Regedit and find key 0cc5b647-c1df-4637-891a-dec35c318583.
  2. Set key ValueMax from 64 to 0.
Quick registry hack (extended, adjustable in power settings)[27]
  1. Open Regedit and find key 0cc5b647-c1df-4637-891a-dec35c318583.
  2. Add a new key Attributes with type dword and value 00000000 or save the following as .reg file and run it to add entries:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Power\PowerSettings\54533251-82be-4824-96c1-47b60b740d00\0cc5b647-c1df-4637-891a-dec35c318583]
"Attributes"=dword:00000000

Now adjustable in Start -> Control Panel -> Power Options -> 'Change Plan settings' -> 'Change advanced power settings' -> Processor Power Management -> Processor performance core parking min cores; 100% means all are used.

Other information[edit]

Install the bundled games of Windows 7 on newer versions[edit]

While Microsoft haven't made the games bundled with older versions of Windows easily accessible to newer versions of the operating system, it is still possible to download and install these due to efforts from the community to make them compatible with newer versions of Windows.

The package includes the following games from Windows 7:

Speed up loading of web pages in Windows[edit]

Windows ships with Automatically detect settings enabled by default for compatibility reasons. This option allows automatic configuration of Internet connectivity in networks that supports it by using the DNS or DHCP services of the network. However support for this type of automatic configuration is almost only found within corporate or academic networks, and the feature is as such not usually required for home or small network users.
The feature have in some instances been found to add noticeable delays when loading content from the Internet, and is therefor recommended to be disabled unless the network requires it.
Disabling this feature affects all applications that relies on the internal IE subsystem of Windows, such as Google Chrome, Steam, and more.
Instructions[28]
  1. Open the Start menu and type Internet Options.
  2. Open the Connections tab, click the LAN Settings button.
  3. Uncheck the Automatically detect settings checkbox.

Notes

Re-enable the setting if you lose Internet access entirely within 48 hours.

References

  1. Verified by User:Aemony on 2018-08-19
    I have now experienced this on two different systems, with both Special K and ReShade while injected into games using "dxgi.dll", despite fullscreen optimizations being disabled.
  2. How to fix CS 30 FPS cap after Windows 10 anniversary update! :: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive General Discussions
  3. PCWorld - How Windows 10's Game Mode will make your PC games run better - last accessed on 2018-07-25
  4. PCWorld - Tested: Windows 10's Game Mode makes unplayable games playable—sometimes - last accessed on 2018-07-25
  5. [1] Blog entry of memory compression tests
  6. https://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/forum/games_windows_10/directdraw-emulation-still-broken-in-windows-10/5a619148-cf1e-4813-b733-997b996b9567
  7. https://www.vogons.org/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=47772
  8. /3GB (Windows Drivers) - Microsoft Developer Network
  9. The oft-misunderstood /3GB switch – The Old New Thing
  10. Kernel address space consequences of the /3GB switch – The Old New Thing
  11. BCDEdit /set (Windows Drivers) - Microsoft Developer Network
  12. Windows Vista File and Registry Virtualisation – Richard's Weblog
  13. Tomb Raider 6 Modding Thread - www.tombraiderforums.com
  14. Retrieve files from the Windows.old folder - Microsoft Windows Help
  15. Change the system locale - Windows Help
  16. https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/windows/en-US/82727f50-9e1b-4fcf-8a38-e45567938ec4/ipx-on-windows-7?forum=w7itpronetworking
  17. http://coolsoft.altervista.org/en/blog/2013/03/what-happened-midi-mapper-windows-8
  18. Microsoft Community Forums :: Age of Mythology - Windows 10
  19. SafeDisc End-of-Life Notice - Trymedia - Wayback Machine - last accessed on 2018-07-26
  20. Verified by User:KyoriAsh on 2018-07-19
  21. http://www.sevenforums.com/gaming/31980-lag-online-games-windows-7-a.html
  22. http://forum.sudden-strike-alliance.fr/all-problem-with-lag-on-windows-7-and-10-t2807.html
  23. https://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/forum/windows_10-networking/is-there-any-way-to-stop-windows-10-from-scanning/3870b3d1-0f07-4875-8779-bb5c11fce0a8
  24. 24.0 24.1 https://superuser.com/questions/881880/turn-off-wi-fi-scanning-on-windows-8
  25. http://forum.cakewalk.com/Windows-7-amp-Core-Parking-a-better-way-to-Turn-It-OFF-m1861804.aspx
  26. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ucMqc5ilG7Q
  27. https://www.overclock.net/forum/297-general-processor-discussions/1544554-core-parking-windows-disable-more-performance.html
  28. Reddit Gaming Subreddit - Make Big Picture Quicker