As of 16 June 2019, the ScummVM engine supports Blade Runner. For more information, see https://www.scummvm.org/news/20190616/.
Use Blade Runner Installer 2012 to install the game from CD/DVD on 64-bit Windows. Also download HDFRAMES.DAT from there and copy it to the installation folder.
Download the patch for the CD-ROM version or the DVD-ROM version.
Download the CPU patch to fix timing issues with the shooting range and "rat in the tunnel" portions of the game.
Game will crash on start if computer does not have an optical drive mounted.
On modern CPUs, shooting range targets never appear or take minutes to. A similar issue occurs with the "rat in the tunnel" portion of the game.
The installer (even the alternate installer) doesn't copy certain files from Discs 2 through 4, so they're missing when the game looks for them.